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Radiation therapy uses a beam of high-energy rays (or particles) to kill cancer cells or slow their growth. Radiation therapy can be used as part of the main treatment (along with chemotherapy) for most anal cancers (this is called chemoradiation.). radiation therapy is the most common treatment for anal cancer. If your doctor recommends radiation, you may be worried about what treatment will entail. Radiation oncologists specialize in treating cancer with radiation. Radiation for anal cancer (typically recurrent anal cancer) may focus on areas where the cancer has progressed. We will discuss the short-term side effects and long-term side effects ,and at the end of the page we provide suggestions for how to build your care team and who should be included. Anal cancer esmo-esso-estro clinical practice guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up r. Radiotherapy for anal cancer can cause side effects such as opening your bowels more often (diarrhoea) or making the skin around your anus sore. Radiotherapy for anal cancer has some short term side effects that usually start a week or so after the radiotherapy begins. Anal cancer treatment options include radiation therapy, chemotherapy, andor surgery. Get detailed information about newly diagnosed and recurrent anal cancer including risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment in this expert-reviewed summary. Anal cancer is a cancer which arises from the anus, the distal opening of the gastrointestinal tract. Symptoms may include bleeding from the anus or a lump near the anus. Other symptoms may include pain, itchiness, or discharge from the anus. In the past, surgery was the only treatment for anal cancer, but today, the disease is often treated with a combination of radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Surgery remains an option for early-stage anal cancer, particularly stage 0, and some stage i and ii anal cancers. Anal cancer is a relatively rare tumor, with estimated new cases in 2014 in both genders likely to reach only about 7,210 (). However, this follows the continually predicted increase over the course of recent years, and falls in line with the increasing incidence found in the past 30 years as well (2-4). The most common histologic subtype, squamous cell carcinoma (scc), is found in.